ESTABLISH IN PROPER PERSPECTIVES THE DIFFERENCES (5) AND SIMILARITIES (5) EXISTING BETWEEN ADVANCE COUNTRIES AND DEVELOPING NATIONS. WHAT ARE THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MEDIA?
Nations have been stratified into different classes depending on their level of development. Some are advanced/developed countries, developing, others are undeveloped countries and yet others least developed countries and so on.
Countries are divided into two major categories by the United Nations, which are advance or developed countries and developing countries. The classification of countries is based on the economic status such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Gross National Product (GNP), per capita income, industrialization, the standard of living, etc. Developed Countries refers to whose economy has highly standard of living, and has technological infrastructure. Developing countries, whose economy has a slow rate of industrialization and low per capita income. (Lynge 2011)
Advance countries, which can generally be categorized as countries that are more industrialized and have higher per capita income levels. To be considered a developed nation, a country generally has a per capita income around or above $12,000. Also, most developed countries have an average per capita income of approximately $38,000.
As of 2010, the list of developed nations included the United States, Canada, Japan, Republic of Korea, Australia, New Zealand, Scandinavia, Singapore, Taiwan, Israel, countries of Western Europe, and some Arab states. In 2012, the combined populations of these countries accounted for around 1.3 billion people. The populations of developed countries are generally more stable, and it is estimated that they will grow at a steady rate of around 7% over the next 40 years.
In addition to having high per capita income and stable population growth rates, developed nations are also characterized by their use of resources. In developed countries, people consume large amounts of natural resources per person and are estimated to consume almost 88% of the world’s resources.
In other hand, developing nations, which is a broad term that includes countries that are less industrialized and have lower per capita income levels. Developing nations can be divided further into moderately developed or less developed countries. For purpose of clarification and understanding of the topic, it is pertinent to give a concise definition of both advanced nations and developing countries.
DEFINITIONS OF ADVANCE NATION AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES:
Advance Nations: An advanced nation refers to the sovereign state, whose economy has highly progressed and possesses great technological infrastructure, as compared to other nations. Advanced nations provide free, healthy and secured atmosphere to live.
Developing countries: Developing countries are countries with low industrialization and low human development index. The countries that are going through the initial levels of industrial development along with low per capita income are known as Developing Countries. These countries come under the category of third world countries. They are also known as lower developed countries.
Developing Countries depend upon the Developed Countries, to support them in establishing industries across the country. The country has a low Human Development Index (HDI) i.e. the country does not enjoy healthy and safe environment to live, low Gross Domestic Product, high illiteracy rate, poor educational, transportation, communication and medical facilities, unsustainable government debt, unequal distribution of income, high death rate and birth rate, malnutrition both to mother and infant which case high infant mortality rate, poor living conditions, high level of unemployment and poverty.
FIVE (5) DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ADVANCE NATIONS AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
1. A advance nation is one that has a high level of industrial development, bases its economy on technology and manufacturing instead of agriculture. The factors of production such as human and natural resources are fully utilized resulting in an increase in production and consumption which leads to a high level of per capita income. Whereas,
A developing nation is one that has a low level of industrialization. It has a higher level of birth and death rates than developed countries. Its infant mortality rate is also high due to poor nutrition, shortage of medical services, and little knowledge on health.
2. A advanced nation is a country that has a high level of industrialization and per capita income whereas, a developing nation is a nation that is still in the early stages of industrial development and has a low per capita income.
3. The citizens of an advanced country enjoy a free, healthy, and affluent existence, whereas, citizens of developing nations do not.
4. Advanced nations are also known as industrialized, advanced, and first-world countries while developing nations are also known as underdeveloped, least developed, and third-world countries.
5. The infant mortality, birth, and death rates of developing nations are also higher compared to that of advanced nations.
FIVE (5) SIMILARITIES BETWEEN ADVANCE NATIONS AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
1. Both advance and developing nations have natural resources, though the utilization of the resources may be at variance.
2. Both advance nations and developing countries have public services such as health and education: Both Public education and health services are present in advance and developing countries.
3. Both advance nations and developing countries have their political systems.
4. Both advance and developing nations have educational system.
5. They both engage in international trade.
THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MEDIA
From the days abode, media has remained an integral part of human civilization. In this era of liberalistion, privatisation and globalisation the world has experienced a vital role of media in societal development. Media helps in fighting against corruption, nepotism, cronyism of institutional machinery and carrying out relentless campaign against them. Also, without media, the news of government schemes and benefits would have never reached the target audience.
However, since the introduction of television in our country in late 70’s visual media becomes a very potential tool in informing the current news to the society, entertaining the people and shaping up of public opinion. The World Wide Web and web 2.0 technologies have given rise to electronic media where even a common man can express views through blogs, website posts, facebook and twitter like social media. Coupled with traditional print media all these audio video and social media caters to a richly diversified media industry in the world. (Hieber, 1998)
What remains paramount here is to consider which type of media (Radio, TV, Internet, Print, PR (Outdoor, posters, etc?) is best fit for/what kind of development?. However, conclusions from several studies tend to indicate that film/video media (and TV as its channel) are the most effective media for social change, followed by radio (which is still pervasive in Malawi because it is relatively cheap), the internet/social media like Facebook and printed media.
Many development projects opt for radio because it reaches a broad audience at the lowest per capita cost but generally this channel is ephemeral and non-specific in nature and once the broadcast is over there is nothing to remind the audience about the content. As such, print media (such posters) are a good development communication supplement.
It is obvious, that, change cannot happen without communication. Projects cannot achieve success without communication. People are not poor because they have no knowledge – they do have knowledge. We must make good use of communication to spread this knowledge.”
In addition, communication is a means to sustainable development, not an end in itself, (Hieber, 1998). He added that, communication for development should not be technology driven. It should be based on social issues and concerns. Technology is at best a facilitator and tool.
Moreover, it is more difficult to get across poverty and development issues to the media. There is therefore need for more local content and local languages, which points to the importance of community media. I hope that this will go a long way revealing a roles of media in development of the society.
Other contributions of media are as follows:
- The media leads to formation of attitude through establishing of values for the society or nation and thereby building a climate of change in the society or nation. According to Alade Odunewu as cited by Yakasai A.S. 1996, this involves the dissemination of news and information in response to a basic human need, which is the “right to know”.
- Protection of Social Justice is another role of media in national development, in that the media are not only expected to record, compose or report account of events and stories just as the historians do, but the media are also expected to analyze issues and facts contained in the news, in line with the need and interest of Social Justice.
- In order to ensure a peaceful national coexistence and progress, the media have before them the task of discouraging such negative issues as ethnicity, dictatorship in leadership like the military rule and of course discourage embezzlement of public funds, as it is the disturbing trend presently indulged by politicians occupying positions of responsibilities and related public officers in Nigeria. Perhaps if the media in Nigeria were carrying out or were allowed to ideally carry out their function of investigating facts and announcing them to the public, some cases of money laundering and embezzlement mostly in developing countries might not have happened.
- The responsibility of informing people about development projects and programmes is another major role of media to national development. Such programmes designed and proposed by policy makers could be entirely new to the people at whom they need to be enlightened, educated and mobilized by the media.
- Offering solutions to problems is another developmental role of the media, in that they are not only expected criticize government officials and condemn their actions, but also as watchdogs of the society, they should review, analyze, appraise or criticize, as the case may be, activities of government agencies and programmes such as the Re-capitalization of banks and the Economic and Financial Crime Commission (EFCC), with a view to offering solutions in the areas where they are failing or lacking and suggest ways to their rectification.
- Lastly, the media in Nigeria ought to use this function of offering solution to encourage leaders to always stick to budgetary provisions and avoid indulging in extra budgetary spending, which leads to embezzlement of public funds.
It can be conclude that there is a big difference between advance nations and developing nations as the developed nations are self-contained flourished while the developing countries are emerging as a developed country. Developing nations are the one who experience the phase of development for the first time. If we talk about advance nations, they are post-industrial economies and due to this reason, the maximum part of their revenue comes from the service sector.
Advanced Nations have a high Human Development Index as compared to Developing Nations. The former has established itself in all fronts and made itself sovereign by its efforts while the latter is still struggling to achieve the same.
Hence, media acts as watchdog to protect public interest against malpractice and create public awareness. Today when politicians are taking full advantage of their positions, an evil nexus of mafia and crime syndicate is making the life of the common man miserable, taxpayer’s money is siphoned out for the personal gain of the influential and ordinary people are a mere spectator, media has a greater responsibility.
Chinsinga, B (2003). The Role of Information Education and Communication (IEC) in Poverty Reduction Efforts: The Case of the Malawi Social Action Fund (MASAF).
Hieber, L (1998). Media as intervention: A report from the field in Track Two. Vol.7(4): Cape Town: Media for Peace Centre
Lynge Nielsen (2011). Classifications of Countries Based on Their Level of Development: How it is Done and How it Could be Done IMF Working Paper WP/11/31.
The UNDP is a subsidiary body of the UN established pursuant to a UN General Assembly resolution. The World Bank and IMF are UN specialized agencies.
establish in proper perspectives the differences (5) and similarities (5) existing between advance countries and developing nations. what are the contributions of the media?, establish in proper perspectives the differences (5) and similarities (5) existing between advance countries and developing nations. what are the contributions of the media?, establish in proper perspectives the differences (5) and similarities (5) existing between advance countries and developing nations. what are the contributions of the media?, establish in proper perspectives the differences (5) and similarities (5) existing between advance countries and developing nations. what are the contributions of the media?
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of Sir Pee Integrated Services and www.libraryguru.com and www.projectvilla.com.ng. A reputable researcher, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.