Use of Visual Materials and Academic Performance in Biology among Secondary School Students


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1.1       Background to the Study

Education according to Archibong (2007); cited from Combs (1970), consists of two components. These two components are classified into inputs and outputs. By his classification inputs consist of human and material resources while outputs are the achievement goals and outcomes of the educational process. Both the inputs and outputs form a dynamic organic whole and if one wants to investigate and assess the educational system in order to improve its performance, the use of one component or the other must be examined.

Use of Visual Materials and Academic Performance in Biology among Secondary School Students

Visual materials which educational input are of vital importance to the teaching of any subject  in the school curriculum, Wales (2008) was of the opinion that the use of instructional materials will make one discovered facts glades firmly to the memory of students. A well planned and imaginative use of visual materials in lessons should do much to banish apathy, supplement inadequate of books as well as arouse students’ interest by giving them something practically to see and do.

Selection of materials which are related to the basic concepts of a course or a lesson helps in-depth understanding of such a lesson by the students in that, they make the lesson attractive to them, thereby arresting their attention to them, motivating them to learn. He suggested a catalogue of aids which could be used to teach Biology. He advocated the use of realia which will help children grounding their thought and feelings. By so doing realia are use as alternative to real objects and materials where it is impossible to show students the real objects, they do serve effectively in teaching and learning.

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Therefore, teacher is seen as the implementing factor for the goal of education to be achieved. In order to obtain a just and egalitarian society as clearly spell out in Nigerian National Policy on Education (1981), schools should be properly and uniformly equipped with visual materials to promote sound and effective teaching.

Scarcity of suitable textbooks, teachers and libraries constraint educational system from responding to new demands, quoted from the educational researchers like; Oluyori (2007), Balogun (2006), Fayemi (2007). Base on the findings of the author mentioned above it becomes justifiable to examine the use of visual materials on academic performance and achievement of Biology Students among secondary schools.

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