TEACHERS MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Teachers are the hub of the educational system in Nigeria and the World at large. Teachers are in the forefront of the battle for national development. It is true to mention that the key to the attainment of these goals has been entrusted to the teachers. If teachers are able to incorporate psychological principles of motivation into their teaching of home economics, learners may find learning home economics more stimulating. Teacher’s motivational strategies are those methods used by the educator or a teacher to facilitate learning among a particular group of learners in a specific situation. In a simpler term, Uwameiye (2016) added that it is what the teacher does to help students learn. The application of motivational strategies by secondary school teachers, make learning more certain to involve learners, less abstract, less tedious and less threatening. This could enhance academic achievement amongst secondary school pupil in home economics moreover, Hargreaves (1994) cited in Rudhumbu (2014) argued that, one major reason why teachers fail to effectively communicate what they are teaching is their inability to plan for motivational strategies in their teaching.
Various factors have been deduced for poor performance of students in home economics. The interest of students in home economics have been related to the volume of work completed, students task orientation and skill acquisition, students personality and self-concept, feeling of inadequacy, motivation and self-confidence (Uwanieiye and Osho, 2011), anxiety, shortage of qualified home economics teachers, poor facilities, equipment and instructional materials for effective teaching (Adeyemo, Oladipupo and Omisore, 2013), use of traditional chalk and talk methods, large class size to teacher’s ratio (Plaxcedia, 2015) among others. In-addition individual characteristics such as intelligence, cognitive styles, and personality play an important role in learning and instruction as does the context of learning. Other research findings have shown that individual students’ characteristics variables such as motivational orientations, self-esteem and learning approaches are important factors that could influence academic achievements among secondary school students in the subject area.
A lot of new and modified old methodologies have been proposed to improve performance in home economics. Instructional materials have also been designed and developed to aid in home economics teaching and learning. Tella (2007) opined that, all these are to help break the cycle of poor performance by motivating students to learn home economics. Teacher’s motivational strategies and academic achievement of secondary school students in home economics are considered as an important aspect of effective learning. However, a learner’s reaction to education determines the extent to which he or she will go in education. That is why Hall (1989) cited in Tella (2007) believes that there is a need to motivate students so as to arouse and sustain their interest in learning home economics. It is therefore, critical that, teachers have the professional competencies necessary for imparting knowledge to the learner. As such, proper methodologies need to introduce so that, teaching and learning can be fruitful.
The subject home economics involves the use of a number of teaching methodologies depending on the topics being covered, level of understanding of the learner, available resources, teacher competences, as well as availability of time. These methodologies are designed to enhance the learner’s knowledge and skills acquisition. Students should be allow to work together in small group to complete a problem, project or any other instructional goal, while teachers act as a guide or facilitator. Johnson (1999) cited in Uwameiye (2016) postulated that learners positively depend on each other, engage in face to face interaction, assessed individually and held accountable for equally haring and contributing to the mastery of learning goals, develop appropriate collaborative and interpersonal skills to teach and encourage each other to learn and reflect and assess the effectiveness of growing, for future learning This method is different from the traditional group method where the students have low independence. In co-operative learning, students take responsibility only for themselves. The discovery that students can get information from sources other than the teacher is able to expand the resources of the learner.
Therefore, the problem in the teaching of Home Economics lies where the teacher is the only source of information since they use only traditional methods of instruction such as lecture and note taking, instead of using methods where active learning take place. Therefore, the present research work is to look at teacher’s different motivational strategies such as frequent social conversation with students regard for student’s perspective which can enhance academic achievement of secondary school students studying home economics in the study area.
teachers motivational strategies on academic achievement
1.2 Statement of Problem
Home Economics is one of the courses which attract low enrollment in Nigerian educational system. The low enrollment calls for much concern and researchers have attributed this to the problems relating to the teaching and learning of the subject. Instructional methods and the learning environment influence students learning. Students should not be regarded as passive recipients or on lookers, rather, they need to be more practical in their learning. Teachers on the other hand, may fail to employ proper methods of teaching in the various topics in relation to the age and level of understanding of students.
Certain methods may be very much divorced to the level of comprehension of the learner, while the resources available may not support the teaching of a particular topic. Also, improvising the available resources and being creative is another attribute that lacks in most home economics teachers. The unavailability of infrastructure and equipment in some of the schools has been a great hindrance in the normal delivery of the subject. This has therefore, resulted in students not performing at maximum as is expected. Therefore, this has triggered the study to explore on teacher’s motivational strategies in teaching home economics to enhance academic achievement of secondary school students.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to assess the influence of teacher’s motivational strategies on academic achievement of secondary school students in home economics in the study area. Thus the study seeks to:
- Assess how teachers’ motivation through frequent social conversation with students influences academic achievement of secondary school students in home economics.
- Examine how teachers’ regard for student’s perspective influences academic achievement of secondary school students.
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of Sir Pee Integrated Services and www.libraryguru.com and www.projectvilla.com.ng. A reputable researcher, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.