School Characteristics And Academic Performance In Mathematics

Abstract: The study investigated school characteristics and academic performance in mathematics in primary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The main objectives were to examine the influence of school location, availability of instructional materials, and class-size on the academic performance of pupils in mathematics. Hence, the survey design was adopted to highlight information from various sources on the issue. The major population of the study consisted of forty nursery school teachers while twenty of them were randomly sampled from ten selected pre-primary schools in Abak Local Government Area.

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A structured questionnaire was adopted as an instrument for data collection while the simple percentage method was adopted to analyze data collected. Findings revealed that, school location availability of instructional materials, and class-size impact of pupils in mathematics. It was therefore recommended among others should be supplied to all pre-primary school in the area.

School Characteristics And Academic Performance In Mathematics


1.1       Background of the Study

Mathematics is one of the formal disciplines that help man lay a solid foundation for future survival. Scientific and technological developments are dependent on mathematics. The Nigerian Government has made mathematics compulsory both at the primary and secondary school levels; also mathematics is a basic requirement for admission into some degree courses in most tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Okeke (2006) noted that there was a general fear and hatred for mathematics: a situation which results in deadline performance in the subject.

Basically, the goal of teaching mathematics especially at the primary level is to prepare pupils to develop critical and creative outlook as they confront the challenges of daily life. Thus, for the teaching of mathematics to be meaningful, teaching must exist at the concrete operational level. By the nature of children they need a large number and variety of educational or instructional resources to interact with children at the primary level like to explore, experiment, create and interact with the environment school characteristics such as type of school, quantity and quality of teachers, availability and usage of quality instructional and infrastructural materials and effective management structure are therefore necessary to create an enabling environment to learn the subject more effectively. It is believed that a well-planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate good social political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of students.

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Glassman (2004) asserted that a comfortable and caring characteristic among other treatments helped to contribute to pupils’ academic performance. The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, learners, and the learning process.

This study will, therefore, investigate into the variability of school characteristics that could impact either positively or negatively on the academic achievement of pupils in mathematics with a view of proffering solution to the lingering poor performances of primary school pupils in mathematics, particularly in Abak Local Government Area.

School Characteristics And Academic Performance In Mathematics

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Ideally, pupils are expected to learn mathematics in a conducive environment which could help them to achieve maximally in the subject. In emphasizing the importance of school characteristics I relation to pupils learning the outcome, Gluchukwo (2004), asserted that school characteristics were an essential aspect of educational planning: that unless schools are well sited, buildings adequately constructed equipped and facilities sufficiently utilized and maintained much teaching and learning may not take place. The high levels of pupils’ academic performance especially in mathematics may not be guaranteed where instructional space such as classroom, libraries, and school facilities are structurally defective.

Unfortunately much is not known about school location such as rural and urban schools. These conditions are feared by the researcher to impact either positively or negatively to pupils’ achievement in the subject. Hence, the researcher intends to find out whether school location, availability of adequate instructional facilities as well as class size could positively relate to pupils learning outcome among primary school pupils.

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School Characteristics And Academic Performance In Mathematics




1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3      Purpose or Objectives of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

1.5       Research Hypotheses

1.6        Significance of the Study

1.7       Delimitation or Scope of the Study

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1.8       Operational Definition of Terms


2.1       School location And Academic Performance of Pupils in Mathematics.

2.2       Availability and Utilization of Instructional Materials and Academic Performance of Pupils in Mathematics

2.3       Class Size and Pupils academic Performances in Mathematics

2.4       Chapter Summary


3.21       Area of the Study

3.1       Research Design

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection

3.6       Validation of Instrument

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument

3.8       Method of Data Collection

3.9       Method of Data Analysis


4.1       Data Analysis and Presentation

4.2       Discussion and Findings


5.1       Summary

5.3       Conclusion

5.5       Recommendations


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