Reading Strategies And Academic Performance Of Pre-Primary School Pupils

Abstract: This study was carried out to examine reading strategies and academic performance of pre-primary school pupils in Oruk Anam Local Government Area. A review of related literature was used as a guide in establishing literally basis for the study, in order to carry out this study, three (3) research objective were drawn which helped in the formulation of three (3) research hypotheses. The research adopted on expost-facto research design. The population of the study was the entire pre-primary school’s teachers in the study area. Simple random sample technique was employed to select the hundred and twenty (120) teachers in ten (10) public pre-primary schools in the study area. A researcher’s structured questionnaire was used to collect the data needed for the study and the data collected were analyzed using independent t-test statistical method.

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The result from the finding showed a significant difference in the three (3) variables investigated. Pupils taught using guided reading strategy performed academically better than those without a guided reading strategy. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made: Curriculum planners in educational sector should consider the introduction of reading strategy programmes to enhance pupils reading comprehension and academic performance. Teachers in pre-primary schools should adopt the strategy instruction approach to teaching reading because it makes the comprehension process more visible and explicit. Teachers should endeavour to find ways of motivating extensive reading activities and implement them so as to improve pupils proficiency and reading fluency and skill. Existing school libraries should be equipped with appropriate, diverse and adequate reading materials to motivate reading.

Reading Strategies And Academic Performance Of Pre-Primary School Pupils

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the Study

1.2      Statement of the Problem

1.3      Purpose or Objectives of the Study

1.4      Research Questions

1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6      Significance of the Study

1.7      Delimitation or Scope of the Study

1.8      Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO -REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       The concept of reading strategies

2.2       Context clues strategies on the academic performance of pupils

2.3       Influence of guided reading strategies on pupils academic performance

2.4       Influence of shared reading strategies on the academic performance of pupils in mathematics.

CHAPTER THREE- METHODOLOGY

3.21       Area of the Study

3.1       Research Design

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection

3.6       Validation of Instrument

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument

3.8       Method of Data Collection

3.9       Method of Data Analysis

 CHAPTER FOUR

4.1       Data Analysis and Presentation

4.2       Discussion and Findings

 CHAPTER FIVE

5.1       Summary

5.3       Conclusion

5.5       Recommendations

Reading Strategies And Academic Performance Of Pre-Primary School Pupils

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

Reading is an important source of human knowledge and information of all kind. It is the fundamental importance for academic progress and general human development. At the national level, the ability to read is important. To a nation’s social and economic advancement. While at the individual level, reading in the 21st century is an important gateway to personal development, social and civic life in the school setting reading is a powerful tool for academic success because it provides pupils with access to information and in the 21st-century information is power and without reading it is meaningless. In essence, reading is crucial to the growth of a nation, the success of individuals and academic achievement. This implies that the ability to read in the modern world tends to drive development in all aspects of life.

However, reading is not always popular among all people in developed countries such as the United State of America and on the African countries reading is generally not popular example in Nigeria (Adeleye, 2008). In December 2010 the president of Nigeria, President Jonathan, called for the book to be brought back into the classroom and society, and he emphasized that reading should be given an important position in school and society if development is to be achieved and sustained.

Research findings have shown that the majority of pupils seemed to struggle with reading. They read slowly and forcefully. They did not engage in any pleasure reading outside of their formal study requirement.

In approaching a reading text, pupils may use reading strategies to help them understand the text. The use of reading strategies differentiates proficient readers from novice readers because proficient readers are more aware of their reading process by monitoring the process and applying strategies when facing comprehension problems.

Reading strategies, referred to as the mental operations involved when readers purposefully approach a text to make sense of what they read.

However, some researchers believe that strategies that have become automatic should be termed “skills”, and this automaticity is a differentiation between the term “strategies” and “skills” making the two terms not interchangeable. Reading strategies are described as purposeful, cognitive actions that pupils take when they are reading to help them construct and maintain meaning.

Reading strategies are those conscious actions taken by readers to enhance understanding of the text. Some of the strategies include decoding, shared reading, guided reading, and scaffolding. Other reading strategies include summarizing, reading comprehension monitoring, questioning and visualizing etc.

Consequently, the use of reading strategies to improve the academic performance of pupils has been recommended by many researchers. Therefore, the report shows that pupils who used more reading strategies on both standardized test reading and textbook reading scored higher on performance, out there was no relation found between unique strategies and reading comprehension as readers with high comprehension and how comprehension both reported using the same processing strategies.

In essence, there are various opinions as to which strategies that they believe will help their pupils to attain better comprehension. Therefore, it can be inferred that effectiveness of strategies depends on the peculiarity of each class with regard to differences in pupils’ abilities in this regard, then the aim of this study is to examine the effect of reading strategies and academic performance of pre-primary school pupils in mathematics in Oruk Anam Local Government Area.

Reading Strategies And Academic Performance Of Pre-Primary School Pupils

1.2     Statement of the Problem

In Nigerian schools and all over the world, it is guaranteed that at some point during the school day, teachers will say, pupils take out your reading books. Pupils will either love or dread this time of the day because there are one million struggling readers between the pre-primary even up to higher education. During reading time, pupils may participate in a variety of activities, some may read Round Robin style when each pupil reads a paragraph aloud in succession, other may be caused to read aloud randomly or pupils may read with a partner or in a small group. Typically there are some reading difficulties that the readers encountered in the reading materials that a teacher model the reading through reading aloud or think aloud. Yet, the level of pupils reading comprehension is still worrisome.

With the average scores remaining under changed for pre-primary school pupils as reported by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), teachers wonder what they can do to improve the reading strategies of pupils. Textbooks often do not include many reading strategies or they may use many different approaches, but do not allow enough time for pupils to practices the strategies. Reading is much different than mathematics. There is no formula to follow or memorize and it is needed to be mastered like, other subjects. Teachers may try to compensate for what textbook lack, so they use auxiliary materials and a variety of different approaches but want to know what strategy (ies) is/are best for improving reading strategies among pre-primary school pupils.

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