(Models And Visual Resources Availability And Utilization In Teaching Of Biology In Secondary Schools) CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Nigeria as a signatory to the millennium development goal (MDG) and education for all (EFA) initiative, adopted the National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS) are a reform measure in 2014. This promoted among others, the adoption of a new curriculum structure for the implementation of a 9-year basic and senior secondary education programmes; and restructuring of the existing subject’s profile for primary, junior and senior secondary schools. With the demand of this initiative, the content of the existing curricula could no longer meet the need of the schools leavers in terms of academic standard, civic, ethical and moral responsibilities, entrepreneurship, nor make them fit for global competitiveness.
Just like every other curriculum innovation, this ideology (curriculum restructuring) is a welcome development, but the major contention is whether the curriculum content will be implemented as planned bearing in mind the unavailability/under-utilization of resources due to poor capacity development, dearth of adequate resources, epileptic power supply, among others.
The importance of instructional resources to the successful implementation of the new Biology curriculum cannot be over emphasized. This is because the use of instructional resources such as models and visual resources is a sinequa non for effective behavioural change in learners (Jimon, 2009). This is why Adekunle (2008) in Okobia (2011), noted that when students are given one opportunity to learn through more sense, they learn faster and easier. Therionwu (2010) referred to models and visual resources as objects or devices which help the teacher to make learning meaningful to the learner. They are materials used to assist the transference of information from one person to another. In other words, models and visual resources are learning materials. It offers a variety of learning experiences individually or in combination with different teaching and learning experiences as well as encourages learners to become skilled technicians with an endless passion for learning. Okobia (2011) summarized the importance of using model and visual resources on the classroom to include: making the subject matter more real; explicating difficult concepts; making the learner experience what is being though; helping to improve upon the imagination of the learners and preventing misconceptions.
A model is a representation of a system (for instance, the human respiratory system, the solar system etc) or a phenomenon (such as the changing seasons, the oxidation of metal, or human’s main training their body temperature etc). These representations can take the form of drawings, diagrams, flow charts, equations, graphs, computer simulation or even physical replicas (such as a tabletop model of a water shed).
According to Okobia (2011), teachers frequently use models in the classroom; in fact textbooks are full of these representations: unfortunately, most teachers rarely make use of models. Models are used as props to show, point out, or provide examples of a system or phenomenon. Visual resources are books, charts, motion pictures, posters, diagrams and photographs. Visual resources play a great role on secondary and make students to clarify non verbal symbols and promote interaction among are students and their subject teachers.
Mavida (2008) state that, the utilization of visual resources in the classroom make students to participate effectively in the teaching process hence enhancing quality education that enable them to suit in the current society in relation to technological changes. Therefore, it is against this background that the study sought to find out the significance models and visual resources availability and utilization in the teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
For a long time in Nigeria research had not been undertaken to investigate the availability and utilization of models and visual resources in the teaching and learning of Biology. However, most of the information available is on the importance of teaching/learning aids and not whether or not these teaching/learning resources are there in schools and are effectively being used by both the teachers and the students. Lack of these has no information for the stakeholders of school and Biology teachers to work with. This study is, therefore, carried out to evaluate the availability, utilization and accessibility of models and visual resources in secondary schools.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Purpose or Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Delimitation or Scope of the Study
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
CHAPTER TWO -REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The Concepts of Models and Visual Resources
2.2 Availability and Utilization of Models and Visual Resources in Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools
2.3 Accessibility and Utilization of Models and Visual Resources in Teaching of Biology in Secondary Schools
2.4 Summary of Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE- METHODOLOGY
3.21 Area of the Study
3.1 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection
3.6 Validation of Instrument
3.7 Reliability of the Instrument
3.8 Method of Data Collection
3.9 Method of Data Analysis
4.1 Data Analysis and Presentation
4.2 Discussion and Findings
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of Sir Pee Integrated Services and www.libraryguru.com and www.projectvilla.com.ng. A reputable researcher, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.