LEARNING STRATEGIES AND STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Learning is a process in which the learner gain a new point of view explains the meaning and rebuilds it by him (Demirel, 2005). Acikgoz (2000) states that, learning is a process that happens in the student’s mind and the teacher is responsible for providing necessary circumstances to facilitate it then the students should deal with the rest. If students do not use the appropriate learning strategies then there will not be any learning. Strategy can generally be explained as a pattern to achieve something or appliance of a plan that is developed to reach a goal.
In Weinstein (1986) opinion, learning strategies are the behaviours and thought the student uses as he learns and obtained knowledge. In support of this view, (Brown 2007:19) defines strategies as specific methods of operation for achieving a particular end and the planned designed for controlling and manipulating certain information. Similarly, Demirel (2001) defines the learning strategy as all of the mental tactics that are used by an individual in case of special learning situation to facilitate obtaining knowledge and abilities learning strategies are defined as association of raw knowledge with what has already been learned and the behaviours that will help remembering this knowledge when it is needed (Weinstein, (1985) Further asserts that, learning strategies and studying abilities are different concepts. When you say “studying conditions” (silence, illumination, heat, form of the chair) preparing for the examinations, concentrating, improving the memory.
It could be said that learning strategies is the whole of all kinds of tactics that individuals use to learn and gain abilities in their own ways. Learning strategies consist of the learners’ behaviours and thoughts that are expected to affect the choice of new knowledge to be taught, arrangement and integration of it. According to, (Buyukozturkvd (2004), Learning strategies are strategies that are developed for dealing with various situations which are learned in social environment (Unimuek, 2004). Support of this view, learning strategies that are mentioned most in different sources into three as (a) central, (b) macro, and (c) micro strategies. Studies offer many proofs that prove effective learning strategies affect learning. Mayer 1988, Weinstein, Zimmerman and Palmer, (1988).
Rotter (1975), mention that in locus of control the individual perceives the positive or negative incident as a function of his own behaviour and under his control but in external control the individual perceives the positive or negative incident as a function of his own behaviour and under his control but in external control the individual perceives the positive or negative incidents as out of his control (Strickland, 1989). In order to provide output and success that is expected from education it is needed to make the students compose their own learning strategies carry on doing it, change and renew it. In this way, it is also important for teachers to determine learning strategies and control focus levels of teaching in enhancing the student’s understand. It is thought that it contributes to requirement of new knowledge when appropriate strategies are programmed especially in an educational system.
Accordingly, Chamot (2014), described learning strategies as the thoughts and actions that individuals use to achieve a set of goals. No doubt, learning is a process in which the gains a new point of view explains the meaning and rebuilds it by him (Demirel, 2005). While Acikgoz (2000) State that, learning is a process that happens in the student’s mind and it is also the responsibility of the teacher to providing the necessary circumstances to facilitate it to the students while the students should deal with the rest. If the students do not use the appropriate learning strategies then there will not be any learning. Strategy can generally be explained as a pattern to achieve something or application of a plan that is developed to reach a goal. In Weinteins (1986) opinion learning strategy are the behaviours and thoughts the student’s uses as he learn which are also aimed to affect the student’s coding process.
learning strategies and students academic performance
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The teaching and learning of Government in Nigerian Schools has series of challenges owing to the fact that the process involves the effort of both the teachers and the students. Thus, one of the major challenges of the educational system is lack of students’ participation in the teaching and learning process at the senior secondary l3evel of education, which also affects the quality delivery of educational institutions. This implies that the students occupy the central position in the teaching and learning process and learning cannot be forceful as such the students must be ready to learn before they can learn. However, due to the important position occupy by students in the teaching learning process their approach or approaches to learning becomes necessary to be investigate upon.
Similarly, there is tremendous pressure on students to earn good grades because academic achievement is assumed to possess predictive value on the student’s future endeavour. The importance of academic achievement has raised several questions among educational researchers. In search for an answer to the questions a number of attempts have been made by researchers to identify factors which influence academic achievement. It is therefore based on the above importance that a question arises in mind of the researcher whether these learning strategies are related to academic achievement in Government or not?
Little study has been done looking at the learning strategies of students at any level of the educational system especially in secondary schools, much which is directed to mainly the senior secondary schools students. Since we live in the information age, this fact clearly makes new demands on the educational system, requiring radical changes on “what” and “how” students learn and why students are not doing as per expectations. It is important to have a clear understanding of what benefits of hinders one’s educational achievement. This is the premise which motivated the researcher to investigate learning strategies and students’ academic performance in secondary schools. learning strategies and students academic performance, learning strategies and students academic performance