instructional strategies utilization and teaching of physical and health education

Abstract: This research work was carried out to examine instructional strategies utilization and teaching of Physical and Health Education in secondary schools. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, two research questions were formulated for the study. A survey research design was employed in carrying out the study. The population of this study consisted of all the teachers in all the public secondary schools in the study area. A total sample size of twenty (20) teachers (respondents) was randomly selected from six (6) secondary schools. The instrument used was a questionnaire for data collection. The data generated were analyzed using simple percentage statistical method.

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The result of the study revealed that instructional strategies utilization significantly influences the teaching of Physical and Health Education in secondary schools in the study area. Recommendations was made among others that, Government should provide facilities such as well equip library, laboratory etc. in both boarding and day schools which will help in the proper usage of the instructional strategies utilization, teachers should attempt to improvise teaching aids and instructional materials where it is necessary to do so, qualified teachers should be posted to secondary schools by educational administrators so that concept that needs utilization instructional strategies can be utilized effectively.



1.1       Background to the study

Education is seen as the springboard for socio-economic growth and development of every nation. It serve as a weapon for combating ignorance, poverty, disease, and as a bridge between confusion and comprehension, as a dam for conserving man’s store of civilization and for generating the power to move to greater civilization, as a rocket for transporting man from a state of intellectual subservience to a state of intellectual sovereignty. Instructional strategies utilization is the series of actions or activities planned by the teacher and systematically provided to the learner to enable him/her receive and process the information; retain and recall it in order to be able to use it to tackle emerging life tasks and problems. It is the overall procedure in which the process of an instruction is organized and executed. Amadi (2012) asserts that instructional strategies utilization refers to all the things the teacher does in the classroom to enable the learner learn.

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Instructional strategies utilization involves the teacher’s skills manipulations on the subject matter in the learning situations in order to secure positive and desired response from the learner (Ugboaja, 2008). Otaburuagu (2009) asserts that strategies are organized sequence, steps and serve as a means of information that is consistently presented to the learner in line with a given instructional strategies. The instructional strategies utilization employed by the teachers is an attempt to impact knowledge on the learner and that is why Omotosho (2010) sees instructional strategies utilization as the strategy or plan that outlines the strategies that teachers intend to take in order to achieve the desirable objectives. It involves the ways teachers organize and use techniques of subject matter, instruction tools and instruction ‘materials to meet, instruction objectives.

Some of the instructional strategies available for the teacher to utilize in communicating ideas, knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the learners in order to achieve the desired objectives of a given lesson include demonstration, lecture, discovery, etc. One of the objectives of physical and Health Education is to develop students’ interest towards science and related science oriented subject. Teachers are expected to device ways of motivating their students’ to develop positive attitudes towards science and science related disciplines (Sola &Ojo, 2007).

Accordingly, discovery strategies is one of the strategies of instruction where the learner is seeking, to discover and create answers to a recognized problems through procedure of making a diligent search, some time with minimum guidance from the teacher (Callahan, Clark & Kelloough, 2009). Discovery instruction strategies is also a term used in science instruction that refers to a way of questioning, seeking knowledge or information and finding out about phenomena, it involves investigating data and arriving at a conclusion (Sola & Ojo 2007). According to Sola and Ojo (2007), discovery is a way people learn when they are left alone. It is also one way of making sense out of what we experience and therefore requires thinking (Blair and Simon 2011). This implies that the strategy requires putting learners into situation in which they must be engaged in intellectual operation that constitutes finding out (Muhammad, 2007). Kyle and Gadsden (2012), viewed discovery strategies as a strategy of instruction where students examine ideas, existing issues, probe and question them freely, and practice on their own or with little guidance from the teacher.

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Demonstration strategies demand that the teacher models the correct skill and procedure while the learner observes, at the end of which the learner is asked to imitate what he has observed. According to Maduewesi (2012), He asserted that demonstration is an example of instruction by showing. He went further to say that demonstration strategies employs sight and touch rather than hearing as the major means of communication. It is an activity which combines telling, showing and doing for the benefit of the students. However, it is a teacher-centered strategy of instruction because he does the demonstration using his voice, movement of the body, chalk, drawing and illustrating. But it is the teacher’s greatest assets in arriving at fundamental skills and practice in a very short time when it is utilized effectively. It is the basic strategies for introducing new skills to students and for developing understanding. It is also basic to getting students accept new and better ways of doing something. The demonstration is done by the teacher while the students watch the teacher as he/she explains and demonstrates.

Instructional strategies utilization and teaching of physical and health education in secondary schools involves manipulative of skills. Physical principles and the working of mechanical devices are often more effectively taught by demonstration than other strategies. It is also good in developing an appeal to the sense of vision and also good in creating a desire to emulate the work of the teacher. In Physical and Health Education demonstration is used to show how to throw a javelin, discuss, or perform forward-roll. In using demonstration, the teacher use simple explanations and explain only those things which are needed to perform the skills competently. However to compliment this study, the present research will examined the aforementioned areas of instructional strategies utilization as it influences the teaching of physical and Health Education in secondary schools.

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1.2       Statement of the problem

The challenges of poor academic achievement of students have been a serious issue in the educational sector and have greatly gotten attention of all stakeholders. These challenges are teachers related, student factors or government related factors. It is an established fact that majority of the people do not believes that instructional strategies utilization have much influences on the teaching of physical and Health Education in secondary schools. The problem of poor teaching and learning of physical and Health Education and increasing failures in secondary schools certificate examination has propelled great research over the years (Braiz2013).

Despite the effort of school administrators and educational experts in physical and Health Education, poor grades and achievements in physical and Health Education at both internal and external examination have been recorded. Therefore, it is pertinent to investigate the composition of instructional strategies utilization such as discovery and demonstration and their influence in the teaching of physical and Health Education in secondary schools in the study area.

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