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Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance of Students

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

In the contemporary world today, attention is focused on education as an instrument of launching nations into the world of science and technology and with consequential hope of human advancement, in terms of living conditions and development of the environment. This is because in the life of a nation, education is the live-wire of its industries; it is the foundation of moral regeneration and revival of its people. Education is the bedrock of any nation’s defense. Education is that process that helps to develop the whole man physically, mentally, socially and technologically to enable him to function effectively in any environment in which he may find himself (FRN, 2009). Therefore no nation can afford to pay lip service to the education of its people.

Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance of Students

A nation that thinks lightly of education does so at its own peril. In this regard, Ogundele (2009) maintained that no nation rises above the level of its education and no educational system out-grows the quality and status of its teachers. This is so because; the teacher is at the center of the teaching-learning process. Hence, the success or otherwise of the process is attributed to him. Accordingly, teaching is an objective and activity driven exercise. It involves the passage or transfer of knowledge or ideas by the teachers to the learners.

Teaching and learning do not happen by chance, it takes processes methods and strategies. As the teacher sets out to implement the curriculum contents at the classroom level, he/she uses a number of methods and strategies that will facilitate the learners’ understanding of instruction given. It is however; incontestable that realization of the objectives of any teaching-learning encounters which will be an illusion if the teacher fails to use appropriate strategies.

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Instructional Strategies and Academic Performance of Students

As the teacher sets out to implement the curriculum contents at the classroom level, he uses a number of the instructional strategies that will facilitate the learners’ understanding of instruction given. It is however, incontestable that realization of the objectives of any teaching-learning encounter will be an illusion if the teacher fails to use appropriate instructional strategies in explaining the subject matter to the students. Therefore, the role of teacher’s instructional strategies in the success of the teaching – learning process cannot be overemphasized.

Instructional strategies are used in the presentation of lesson to help the students learn by ensuring the smooth delivery of the instruction. The availability of qualified and experienced teachers only does not guarantee the success of the teaching-learning process, but also the strategies adopted by teachers and their application (Dyer, 2005). In organizing lesson, the teacher should be more concern about what to teach, how to teach and when to teach his/ her learners. He/she should adopt good strategy of instructions that will guarantee better understanding of what he intends to teach his learners.

Students’ negative attitude towards some school subjects might not be unconnected with the teachers’ strategies of instruction vis-à-vis his method. Not fully appreciated by most teachers is the importance of instructional strategies in the teaching-learning process. Although there are teachers with good subject matter mastery, the learners ability to comprehend the knowledge imparted by teacher depends to a greater extended on the strategies applied by the teacher.

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According to Foster (2008), several methods of instruction have been employed by teachers to facilitate students’ understanding of instruction but not much success have need recorded due to their wrong application by the teachers.

Towari (2006) observed that teaching strategies that encourage students’ centered activities are conspicuously lacking among teachers. Instructional strategies are techniques teachers use to help students become independent, strategic learners. These strategies become learning strategies when students independently select the appropriate ones and use them effectively to accomplish tasks or meet goals. Effective instructional and learning strategies can be used across grade levels and subject areas, and can accommodate a range of student differences O’Connor(2007).

Hence, for effective teaching to take place, the teacher should stimulate, encourage and maintain active participation of the learners through the selection of appropriate instructional strategies. This will ensure a balance between what is taught and how it is taught. Thus, there is no gain saying in the fact that successful instruction does not depend only on the teachers’ mastery of the subject matter but also the instructional strategies employed.

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