Instructional Methods And Pre-Primary School Pupils Academic Performance


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This research centred on “Instructional methods and pre-primary school pupils academic performance in Basic Science in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area”. Two research questions and two research hypotheses were formulated for the study. A quasi-experimental design was employed in carrying out the study. Four thousand six hundred (4,600) pre-primary two school pupils formed the population of the study. A simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of two (2) primary schools and one hundred (100) pre-primary school pupils used in the study. Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT) was used to gather data for the study. The data generated from the instrument was analyzed using independent t-test statistics. The results showed that there is a significant difference in the academic performance of pre-primary school pupils when demonstration and lecture instructional methods are used in the teaching of Basic Science. It also revealed that there is a significant different between male and female pre-primary school pupils taught Basic Science with demonstration method in favour of the males. It was therefore recommended among all that teachers should use demonstration method in teaching sciences in order to achieve better academic performance in learning, and a pre-primary school teachers should motivate their female pupils to take active part in every demonstration activity that take place in class.

Instructional Methods And Pre-Primary School Pupils Academic Performance


1.1       Background to the Study

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring about a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal and Kahassay, 2011). To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate instructional methods of teaching that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes. In the traditional epoch many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher centred methods to impact knowledge to learners comparative to pupil-centred methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of instructional methods on pupils’ learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research.

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However, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different instructional methods of teaching enhance growth in pre-primary school pupils.

Quite remarkably, regular poor academic performance by the majority of pupils in fundamentally linked to application of ineffective instructional methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners. Substantial research on the effectiveness of instructional methods of teaching indicates that the quality of teaching or instruction is often reflected by the achievement of learners. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes in order for the method used for instruction or teaching to be effective; teachers need to be conversant with numerous instructional or teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered. More so, instructional procedures must include appropriate methods and techniques. Often, teachers have misconceived the difference between methods and techniques. According to Aina (2008), a method is a way of doing something, it is an approach or a stand, which a teacher (instructor) adopts to explain a subject matter to a group of pupils or a pupil. On the one hand, methodology is the study and practice of various methods of teaching.

The Nigeria Certificate in Education /Distance learning system course book defines instructional method (teaching method) as a process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experiences of the child to achieve desirable outcomes. A teaching method may be also regarded as broad and consistent manner of teaching that is guided by certain basic beliefs. The strategies can be sued individually or collectively to achieve educational objectives.

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According to Akinleye (2006), instructional methods have been grouped in many ways. All early instructional methods (teaching methods) are classified as traditional methods. The grouping are, traditional teaching methods such as the lecture, direct or other telling methods, heuristic teaching method, creativity teaching methods such as peer group tutoring methods, play-way method etc.

Instructional Methods And Pre-Primary School Pupils Academic Performance

Furthermore, teaching method comprises the principles and methods used for instruction to be implemented by teaches to achieve the desire of learning or memorization by pupils. these strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Davis (2007) suggested that the design and selection of instructional methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also show pupils learning.

In today’s school, the trend is that it encourages a lot of creativity. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through reasoning and this form the background of the study.

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