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Instructional Materials In Teaching Agriculture

Instructional Materials In Teaching Agriculture

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 CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 1.1       Background to the Study

The application of instructional material to the teaching-learning process as a supportive device to information from texts and verbal presentation has gained grounds in educational practices. The selection and procurement of instructional materials are strictly guided by the content of the curriculum and the teacher’s method of instructional delivery.

Instructional material is those device developed or acquired by the teacher to assist or facilitate the process of imparting knowledge and skills to the learners within an instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2006). Teachers often make use of textbook, charts, models, graphics, and regalia and locally sourced improvised materials to motivate learning.

Instructional materials are of several kinds. They are classified on the basis of the type of sense they appeal to printed materials such as textbooks, laboratory manuals, workbooks, cartoons, photographs, maps, charts, microfilm, journals, newspapers, and model specimens are visual aids. Those that stimulate the sense of hearing, such as radio, tape, recorders, compact discs, record player etc are classified as audio materials. Instructional materials which appeal to both the sense of hearing and sight are called audiovisual materials such as television, videotapes, and player, compact disc (UCDS), still or motion pictures with sound tracts.

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Instructional Materials In Teaching Agriculture

However, the teaching-learning process in schools is a complex activity which unites together processes such as instructing and training with the overall intention of getting learners not only to acquire knowledge and skills, but to acquire them in a manner which involves understanding and evaluation of the underlying rationale for what is presented as learning materials (Olisaemeka, 2007).

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Accordingly, the success of the teaching-learning process depends to a large extent on availability and effective utilization of both standard and improvised Instructional materials to facilitate Instruction. Learning is facilitated when the learners make use of at least three of the sense organs namely, seeing, hearing and touching. This agrees with a popular Chinese proverb that states: I hear – I forget, I see – I remember, I do – I understand (Ogwuazor, 2008).   The need for improvisation in the absence of standard materials or real objects cannot be overemphasized.

Improvisation occurs when the teacher on the ground of inadequacy or lack of a standard. Instructional materials make a step or move to develop, construct, design and utilize alternative material to aid his/her Instructional delivery and facilitate students understanding of concept taught (Ogunsaju 2007). It is an essential innovation in the educational process. Therefore, it is indisputable that the realization of the objective of any teaching-learning encounter will be an illusion in the absence of Instructional material and where the teacher fails to improvise.

Improvised material, therefore, plays a significant role as a substitute for real object or materials in facilitating effective lesson delivery.  An effective teaching is one where the objectives of the lesson been achieved, that is where students have learned (Isola, 2010).

Instructional Materials In Teaching Agriculture

There are times teachers teach but no learning takes place. This because something was missing that makes the students not to understand the lesson and therefore learning did not take place. That constituted a wasted time and energy. Students at the secondary school level have invariably had excessive use of words to convey meaning when Instructional materials are not used. Student at this needs a rich store of concrete sensory experiences to aid understanding of what they learned. The development of modern technology, science and the richness of the environment have placed within the reach of teachers a vast array of improvised materials to provide for effective teaching and learning.

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Agricultural science as a science and vocational discipline that needs a variety of Instructional materials and where standard materials are not readily available, the teacher should source for alternative through improvisation to enhance his teaching effectiveness and facilitate students understanding of lessons taught especially, those lessons that have practical components. This will go a long way in improving student’s academic performance in the subject.

Instructional Materials In Teaching Agriculture

1.2 Statement of the Problem

One of the major challenges of education in the 21st century is how the society may adequately provide functional education to its ever increasing population. This problem assumes staggering dimension in a developing country such as Nigeria where implementation of education programmes have yielded little results. While the government does its best to allocate available resources to the competing sectors of the economy, the wise management of these resources both human and materials for effective attainment of set goods objective is often a formidable task.

However, no school subject cannot be taught effectively without relevant instructional material if set objectives must be realized. Apparently, it has been observed with dismay that most subject teachers are still teaching the subject verbally without Instructional materials, and they have made no effort to improvise where standard materials are not readily available. This development has serious consequences on the effective teaching and learning of the subject. The improvisation of Instructional material has become a matter of utmost necessity for effective teaching of education. There is no doubt, therefore, that effective teaching vis-a-vis improvement in students academic performance will be a mirage if scarce materials are not improvised and skillfully utilized by teachers. It is against the background, therefore, that this study “Availability and utilization of improvised Instructional materials for effective teaching in secondary schools.

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