Home Variables And Academic Performance Of Students


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 1.1 Background to the Study

Home is the first and the most significant place for the child’s inclusive growth and development. The home provides not only the hereditary transmission of basic potentials for the child but also the favourable environment in terms of interpersonal relation and cultural pattern. However, education like in school at home must also strive to achieve the desired objective in principles with constructive ways of perceiving and making self-meaning. However, educational psychologist broadly maintained that in education development of a child, how and school are the twins that play complementary roles and also towards the social bringing of the children in the society. Omebe (2012), agreed on the ideology that, home is the forerunner of the school. He also expressed that; the home and school are the two notable institutions that cultures a child to be what he/she is in the society.

Home Variables And Academic Performance Of Students

Egboh and Igba (2013) in their personal reflection added that the homes are the two stages that combined efforts to propagate a child or children to face the challenges in the society. Okpahone (2010) stated that home is the basic education formation, while school is hearing and based are responsible for the addition and supplement. Therefore, if the foundation laid by the home teachers is fragile, the child may not stand firm and benefit adequately from the secondary school education. But, when its natural or educational formation satieties and also effectively boosts its awareness toward the study, the school can feature to strengthen the foundation.

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Aboyi (2012) asserted that the failure of some students from meeting up to the demands within the family, school, and society was the negative influence of students toward the utilization of the available wealth of the family. Nweke (2011) stated that the actual cause of students’ failure is as a result of the nature of family background and upbringing in terms of socio-economic status and other home variables, which can give birth to poor planning mechanism. Poor planning mechanism has to do with a situation in which parents do not have the will to set aside funds and use the funds based on budget. Interest in learning and academic performance among students cannot be separated from the home environment from which they grew up.

Home Variables And Academic Performance Of Students

Home variables means those qualities in a family that is subject to change or varies; they include all the human and material resources present at the home that may affects the child’s academic outcome, such as the parent’s level of education (low, middle or high), their occupation, socioeconomic status (low, middle or high), parenting style (authoritative, permissive, democratic and neglectful), marital status, broken homes (single parenthood, divorce, separated etc.) and socializing facilities available in the house. Thus, the home is the basic institution for providing the child’s primary socialization and laying the educational foundation for the child upon which other agents of socialization are built. The education received by a child from parents at home is most likely to house highly significant and dominant effects on the behaviours of the child later in life. What the child learns at home and how his/her family motivates him/her towards education contributes to the child success of every individual. Furthermore, in students’ home background, some factors that influence their academic performance include parental educational background, parental economic status, parental marital status, parental home location etc.

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Home Variables And Academic Performance Of Students

1.2  Statement of the Problem

Over the years, the society had recorded a persisted increase in the rate of poor performance in economics in school Examination such as terminal examination, promotion examination, and external examination. Comment from education shows that the blame from a look has been as a result of neglect of and carefree attitude of parents towards academic works of their children. We understand that the home is the first school for a child where he or she has taught the basic norms and valves by the parent before the child learns for the formal education. Contrary to the popular opinion, which states the “learning and reading begins in school, but the first foundation of the child begins at home”.

In recent years, there has been this assumption that the standard of education in Nigeria has fallen which manifest itself in poor performance of students. This has therefore led to a lot of argument of whom to blame, the teachers, the government, students, peer groups contribute to the students’ academic performance in economic but the home into which the students are born nature and spends most of his time is to be blamedd more because the home is the major contributor to the student performance in economics. It is against this background that the researcher has decided to investigate the home variables and academic performance in economics among secondary school students.




1.1      Background of the Study

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1.2      Statement of the Problem

1.3      Purpose or Objectives of the Study

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1.4      Research Questions

1.5      Research Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Delimitation or Scope of the Study

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms


2.1     Theoretical Framework

2.2     The Concept of the Home

2.3     Parental Socioeconomic Status and Academic Performance in Economics among Secondary Schools.

2.4     Parental Level of Education and Academic Performance in Economics in Secondary Schools.

2.5     Broken Home and Academic Performance in Economics in Secondary Schools.

2.6     Summary of Literature Review


3.21       Area of the Study

3.1       Research Design

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection

3.6       Validation of Instrument

3.7       Reliability of the Instrument

3.8       Method of Data Collection

3.9       Method of Data Analysis


4.1       Data Analysis and Presentation

4.2       Discussion and Findings


5.1       Summary

5.3       Conclusion

5.5       Recommendations


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