Guidance Dimensions And Academic Performance Of Students


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 1.1       Background to the Study

Guidance is the process of helping an individual helping to help himself and to develop his potentialities to the fullest by utilizing maximum opportunities provided by the environment. We need to understand the dimension of guidance in order to appreciate the attendance functions expected of counselors or guidance experts in schools. Mutic (2009) defined guidance as a learning-oriented process which occurs in an interactive relationship with the aim of helping the clients to learn more about themselves. Guidance is therefore aimed at bringing about maximum development and self-realization of human potentials for the benefit of the individual and the society. Gichinga (2008) observes that a guidance programme has had an impact in secondary schools in Nigeria by helping an individual student to choose and pursue available careers. Guidance programme has three major dimensions. These are the educational dimension, the vocational dimension, and personal-social guidance.

Guidance Dimensions And Academic Performance Of Students

These three dimensions are not mutually exclusive but inter-related Ekanem and Eneh (2005). They are inter-related because any problem in one area may affect the other. For example, a personal-social problem can create an educational problem while a vocational problem may arise from an educational or personal-social problem. It is the individual who is at the centre of all these. As Denga (2012) puts it basically to all purposes of student counseling is the objective of the student’s total development. He further stated that educational guidance is mainly at helping students solve their educational problems.

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Furthermore, such problems as listed by Denga (2007) include; firstly, how to make appropriate choices of subjects and educational programmes; secondly, how to develop effective study habits; thirdly, how to make good grades in school; fourthly, how to choose appropriate institutions for further studies; fifthly, how to cope with examination anxiety  and finally, how to budget study time. In order to achieve the objectives of educational guidance, the counselor has to do. In conjunction with other school personnel, he should organize orientation for new students, have individual or group educational concerning with the students and assess students’ study behaviour in order to identify effective study habit and consequently help remedy them.

Guidance Dimensions And Academic Performance Of Students

According to Makinde (2008) guidance programme is one of the roles for school counselor used to help students who have difficulties in making a career choice. This means that vocational guidance in school should be employed to assist students to make realistic and appropriate vocational decisions. Realistic decisions refer to those decisions that are not beyond the reach of those making them. This means that students should aspire to enter occupations that suit their interests, values, and abilities. Ekanem and Eneh (2005) stated that the third component of guidance and counseling in a school setting is personal-social and psychological problems most of which are of a privatized nature. Typical examples include interpersonal relationship problems, family problems, emotional disturbances, phobia, drug abuse, and sexual difficulties among others. These problems cut across academic performance and also provide the basis for failure in occupational pursuits.

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Guidance Dimensions And Academic Performance Of Students

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Effective guidance is essential in every school. An organized guidance programme will offer the right environment for the growth and development of the educational system in our schools. Nwachukwu and Ugwuegbulam (2006) thus see the need for introduction of guidance in schools as to give students career information and to assist them to make appropriate and realistic educational, social-personal and vocational choices and to produce students who are properly adjusted socially and emotionally and who are mature enough to face the world after the completion of their secondary education.

The society in which the child grows is not immune from a number of disabling societal and individual problems. Such as lack of guiding values, lack patriotism, acrimonious inter-personal conflicts, and self-leadership.

Poor academic performance by students has been linkinged to lack of proper guidance by the parents and the teacher despite numerous ways in which government has facilitated the introduction of guidance programmes in school, still, there is a great height of indiscipline among students which contributed to their poor academic performance. In order to control this situation, guidance programs, therefore, have to be taken seriously through the employment of experts services to assist students overcome numerous challenges they experience at home and at school and other to yield a positive result in their academic achievement and performances.


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