A SEMINAR PAPER ON (THE CONCEPT OF PHYTO-DISINFECTANT OF WATER PURIFICATION )
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Water is essential
for human survival. It has been reported that the total amount of water in the
world is about 1400 million cubic km (= 1018 tonnes) and remains constant (ref.
water cycle 207) Apparently, more than 97% of this total volume is seawater of
the rest 22% is ground water and 97% is ice locked away in the glaciers and the
polar ice cap. This obviously leaves less than 1% of the supply of fresh water,
which takes in the water hydrological cycle, but half of this is found in
rivers, lakes, and swamps. Most of the fresh water is polluted. In Northern
Nigeria, for instance, 95% of the surface water, and this remains true for
sub-Saharan Africa, is considerably polluted. This seminar paper discusses the
concept of phyto-disinfectant of water purification. The process in water
purification, types of phyto disinfectant, application of phyto disinfectant
and importance of phyto disinfectant in water purification were discussed.
Summary, recommendations and conclusion were put-forward.
Water is under
increasing and competing demands from agricultural, industrial and domestic
uses with increasing pollution threatening this scarce resource. The total
volume of water as dictated by hydrological remains constant but contamination
of water by geological, industrial and anthropogenic sources remains the
greatest deterrent to Man’s usage. About 1.6 million people are forced to use
contaminated water globally, (WHO,
1990). Uncontaminated water is rarely obtainable in rural Africa,
Asia and especially in Subsaharan Africa where the prevalence of waterborne
infectious diseases is sharply rising, (UNESCO, 2007)
diseases contribute to the death of about 4 million children in the developing
countries per annum. As such, the world health organization has estimated that
up to 80% of all disease and sickness in the world is caused by inadequate
sanitation, polluted water or unavailability of water (Yongabi, 2009). The need to treat waste
water both for domestic use and safe disposal to the environment is obviously
exigent. In most developing nations, there are legislation/legal framework
established to have industries and factories treat their wastewater before
disposal but the cost has been prohibitive for most companies and as such very few companies treat their
wastewater. Unlike in the Western countries, most companies treat their
wastewater although at high cost, high energy inputs with complex and most
often technologies that are not ecological (Gunnel,
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management has become a global phenomenon. The beginning of the 21st century
has experienced heightened awareness on ecological matters. Humankind has fully
come to terms with the rapid urbanization and population growth that is
invariably accompanied by adverse environmental problems. There are a number of
natural, social and economic activities that affect water quality and
availability (Prasad, 2009). There are some water bodies that are
naturally defective due to the geology of the area. Besides, there are also
natural and artificial water bodies like ponds that contain a lot of nutrients
and unacceptable for consumption.
disasters like the Tsunami in last December 2004 have generated a social
quagmire and a scandal to the scientific world, as clean water and other
embarrassing environmental challenges abound. Furthermore, conflict prone areas
around Africa like the Dafur region of Sudan, DR Congo, to name a few,
experience acute water crises. It has been estimated that 125 litres of water (potable)
is required per person per day, yet, many households cannot actually boast of
25 litres of clean water per person per day. In tandem with this, water
purification technologies would have to be reviewed in terms of its simplicity,
accessibility (cost) and efficiency (Cofie
and Keiaita, 2003).
The search for simple, reliable and effective method of water treatment led to
the use of plant materials including seeds of Moringa oleifera (WHO,
Standard methods for the treatment of water include coagulation, flocculation,
sedimentation and disinfection. These methods are often inappropriate due to
prohibitive cost and low availability of chemical coagulants and disinfectants.
Dosage and technique poses some local challenges, and for this reasons efforts
to establish appropriate chlorination techniques for wells in rural communities
is imperative (K.A Yongabi (2004).
the available technologies in present day do appear complex and still
expensive. No doubt, despite tremendous awareness campaign during the water and
sanitation decade of 1981-1990, water and sanitation problems today still
remain a major task to reckon with. If the Millennium Development Goals in the
water and sanitation sector are something to go by, then the need to focus on
integrated low cost water purification systems at grassroots stands
In Nigeria, 80-90% of all infectious diseases
are water borne. Governments in these countries spend a significant proportion
of their budgets importing alum and chlorine from western nations for municipal
water treatment. More than 1.2 million people lack safe drinking water in
developing countries. Apart from high cost of treating water in sub-Saharan
Africa, waterborne microorganisms are developing resistance to currently used
disinfectants such as chlorine. To meet the United Nations Millennium
Development Goals (MDG) of providing safe drinking water, alternative and
complimentary approaches such as the application of Moringa oleifera plant
materials and sand filters are being studied. Previous research regarding the
application of Moringa oleifera (MO) seeds have focused on the isolation of
bioactive coagulant ingredients for more than four decades, with little
attention directed toward field application in small and large scale water
treatment applications. Slow sand filters take more than two weeks to generate
clean water but there have been few studies directed towards integrating
Moringa oleifera and other plant disinfectants with sand filters to generate
clean water in a relatively short retention times at faster flow rates
of the Study
drinking water and adequate sanitation are essential for human health and
dignity. However, 1.2 billion people do not have (Pritchard et al., 2009;
UNICEF, 2009). Approximately, 2.5 billion people in the world lack adequate
sanitation facilities (UNICEF, 1993; UNEP 2002; Zhang et al., 2006; UNESCO,
2007; UNICEF, 2009). Waterborne and water related diseases such as diarrhea,
typhoid, cholera and drancunculiasis are fast becoming endemic in certain parts
of Africa (Cheesbrough, 1984; Yongabi, 2004; Pritchard et al., 2009). Yet, the present well documented
technologies used in water treatment such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, uv
sterilization, aluminum sulphate and chlorine are becoming unsustainable,
unecological, expensive to run, managed
and maintained, particularly in Africa (Pritchard et al., 2009). For example,
Chlorine is known to produce trichloromethane, a cancer precursor (Yongabi,
2004) while Aluminum sulphate has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease (Zhang et
al., 2009). Furthermore, the cost of purchasing synthetic coagulants and
disinfectants is in hard currency leading to high pricing for treated water in
Africa (Kebreab et al., 2005). Simple technologies such as the application of
plant coagulants such as Moringa oliefera to treat water has been extensively
reported (Oliver, 1959; Jahn, 1981; Muyibi et al., 2002; Yongabi, 2004;
Pritchard et al., 2009).
Interest in isolating and purifying bioactive Moringa oleifera coagulant ingredient has grown and outweighed efforts on taking inventory of other potential plant coagulants and disinfectants. The most important step in water treatment is disinfection. Attention has been focused on screening plants for coagulant activity (Eilert, 1978; Jahn, 1981; Muyibi et al., 2002a; Kebreab et al., 2005; Amir et al., 2010), but not all coagulants are disinfectant. The flora of Africa is rich with a lot of medicinal plants and Macro fungi which people in the rural areas are quite familiar. Sofowora (1982) and Yongabi (2004) reported that Africa has as much as 300, 00 medicinal plants while Chang (1993) reported that the world mushroom biodiversity is as much as 1.5 million species. There is, therefore, an urgent need to explore and utilize these rich biodiversity through researches that could translate to direct benefit to humankind (Yongabi, 2009). Plant disinfectants could provide useful insight for the production of natural disinfectants and coagulants which are environment friendly and with much reduced risk of handling. The ultimate purpose of this seminar is to carry out an inventory of plants used as disinfectants in rural Afaha Nsit community, conduct an in vitro evaluation of crude plant powders and solvent extracts on directly disinfecting turbid surface water from the area.
1.2 Definition of Terms
(i) Phyto: Phyto means plant. Word-forming element
meaning “plant,” from Greek phyton “plant,” literally
“that which has grown,” from phyein “to grow”. In the direct in-situ removal of pollutants,
(hyper) accumulating crops are cultivated. The crops are cut and transported
for composting or controlled incineration. In farming areas, the intention is
for these activities to be carried out by the farmers themselves.
The plant-types that are suited to this technique are
those that have a high in-take capacity. In addition to this, it is important
that the crops have a high return of (mowable) dry matter. If the crop has
another economic and/or agricultural value, this is definitely a plus point.
Grasses and clover appear to be ideal for
phyto-remediation because they have a fibrous root system which forms a
permanently-compact rhizosphere (the soil in the immediate surrounding of the
plant roots). This also provides the additional benefit that soil is protected
against water and wind erosion. Literature makes reference to the following
grasses: Alfalfa, clover, fescue grass, Bermuda grass and rye-grass.
Plants can also be transformed to selectively extract and accumulate
heavy metals, so that potential metal-rich residues can be recycled. Transgenic
tobacco and potato are good examples. By way of this transformation, the
tolerance to heavy metals is also increased.
(ii) Disinfectant: Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects. Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical and/or chemical process that kills all types of life. Disinfectants are different from other antimicrobial agents such as antibiotics, which destroy microorganisms within the body, and antiseptics, which destroy microorganisms on living tissue. Disinfectants are also different from biocides — the latter are intended to destroy all forms of life, not just microorganisms. Disinfectants work by destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with their metabolism.
In wastewater treatment, a disinfection step with chlorine, ultra-violet (UV) radiation or ozonation can be included as tertiary treatment to remove pathogens from wastewater, for example if it is to be reused to irrigate golf courses. An alternative term used in the sanitation sector for disinfection of waste streams, sewage sludge or fecal sludge is sanitisation orsanitization.
Therefore, disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than sterilization, which is an extreme physical and/or chemical process that kills all types of life. Disinfectants work by destroying the cell wall of microbes or interfering with their metabolism.
Purification is the removal of impure elements from something. After purification, water is safe to drink.
Most cities have a system of water purification,
so people get clean fresh drinking water without any parasites or goldfish in
Purification is when things are
cleaned and made pure. Salt water must undergo purification before it’s safe to
drink. Some filters do a purification of the air to reduce allergens Water purification, process by which undesired chemical
compounds, organic and inorganic materials, and biological contaminants are
removed from water. The purification procedure reduces the
concentration of contaminants such as suspended particles, parasites, bacteria,
algae, viruses, and fungi.
Phyto Disinfectant: Phyto-disinfectants are plant materials used in treating turbid water and can be applied in wastewater treatment.
Water: Water in its natural state is a liquid; it is ever-changing, when heated it becomes steam (vapor) and when cooled it becomes ice (a solid). Water covers over 70% of the Earth’s surface and is vital for the existence of all forms of life, yet less than 3% of water is in its consumable form and 98% of that is either ice or underground. About 96% of the planet’s water is in the salty seas and oceans. Water is important to life, industry, food, recreation, and energy. It is considered the universal solvent. There is no man-made or natural obstacle that water cannot overcome through time, erosion, pressure, or change of state.
concept of phyto-disinfectant of water purification
2. Literature Review
2.1 Concept of Phytodisinfectant in Water Purification
Despite the technological advancement in water treatment and supply, one major challenge facing many developing countries today is the lack of clean and safe drinking water to its citizens. It has been estimated that 1.2 billion people do not have clean and safe drinking water (Pritchard et al., 2009).
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