The tasks of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the activities of an organization are referred to as the four major functions of management.
These four hotel management functions can be briefly described as follows:
Planning: The process of setting a hotel’s goals and objectives and developing the most appropriate strategies to achieve them.
Organizing: Devising a structure that assigns specific tasks to individuals within the hotel, provides for coordination of activities between different groups and sees to the hiring and training of staff to carry out the assigned tasks.
Directing: The process of leadership that motivates a hotel staff to perform the tasks necessary to achieve the hotel’s goals and objectives.
Controlling: The process of monitoring, evaluating, and providing corrective actions to the activities of the hotel in order to ensure that its overall goals and objectives are met.
Two additional functions of hotel management are as follows:
- Works study: The scientific study of human work in all contexts with the aim of making optimum use of present resources namely workers, machinery and materials.
- Decision-making: The process of identifying a problem, breaking it into manageable sections, evaluating available alternatives, a collection of data and analyzing results to make a choice on the basis of possible outcomes and finally implementing the decision.
Executives must manage the human, financial, and physical resources of a hotel. Thus, hotel management is concerned with activities that relate to employees (human resources), money (financial resources) and facilities (physical resources). Planning, organizing, directing, and controlling the activities of a hotel are accomplished with and through people. This statement may express the obvious, but it reinforces the importance of people in hotel management. This is reflected in the popular shorthand definitions of management as the act of getting things done through others.
Hotel management is a goal driven activity. The activities of hotel executives and all the employees of a hotel need to be directed toward goal accomplishments. How well a hotel is managed is determined by its ability to accomplish its goals.
Two final points need to be made concerning the definition of hotel management. The first deals with the interrelationship between planning, organizing, directing, and controlling functions of hotel management. Most management textbooks present these four functions as if they are performed independently of each other. In practice, there is a high degree of interrelationship between the four, as hotel executives continually make decisions and address functional problems while attempting to meet the hotel’s goals. The second point is that hotels exist within and environment that affects many aspects of hotel management.
The hotel environment includes external factors and internal factors that must be taken into account when managing a hotel. An example of an important external factor is the amount of competition in the hotel industry while an internal factor is the intangible nature of many of the services a hotel provides to its guests.
Management is an ongoing, interrelated process that can be depicted by two-headed arrows connecting the major management functions of planning, organizing, directing, and controlling. That hotel management is a goal-directed activity also can be depicted by the two-headed arrows connecting a hotel’s goals directly to the four management functions within the management process. Finally, the entire hotel management process takes place within a larger environmental framework. Various environmental factors, which can be depicted as heavy arrows, impinge on the management process and influence how hotels should be managed.
Peter Hezekiah Lawson (Sir Pee). The CEO of Sir Pee Integrated Services and www.libraryguru.com and www.projectvilla.com.ng. A reputable researcher, ICT Instructor and a publisher of many research works in Education.