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Education Must Involve Knowledge, Understanding and Some Kind Of Cognitive Perspective Which Are Not Inert


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Education suggests passing on the ultimate values of a community, so that the individual can make them his own. “Education” suggests not only that what develops in someone is valuable but also that it involves the development of knowledge and understanding. Whatever else an educated person is, he is one who has some understanding of something.

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Education is the development of all those capabilities in which the individual which is enable him to control his environment and fulfillment his possibilities. It is a process of acquiring new habits, knowledge & skill which together enables learners to do something that he/she could not do before. It is a mental activity by means of which skills, attitude, appreciation and ideas are acquired, resulting in modification of behaviors.


As Aristotle put it; to develop the mind is one and the same thing as to develop our understanding. However, Peter’s Substantive claims about education now come into play. The understanding of the educated person is not just any understanding; we would not call a pickpocket successfully. More generally, we consider the educated person to be one who has more than “knowledge how to…” more than a repertoire of skills, but rather has understanding of “the reason why of things”.

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At this juncture, two points should be noted about this Term Paper topic “Education most involves knowledge, understanding and some kind of cognitive perspective which are not inert”. According Peter, the philosopher who coined the statement, he has been criticized for his use of phrasing such as “we would not call…” or “we would not say” on the grounds that this is simply to report on the way that he and his friends happen to express themselves. But it is surely clear that he does not mean by such phrasing “as a matter of empirical fact nobody does say this”; rather, he means to invite readers to consider whether it makes sense to them to talk in such a way, confident in the view that honest reflection will lead to the conclusion that it doesn’t make sense.

Second, Peters actually tends to talk more of knowledge than of understanding. The latter can be seen as preferable since it is more open; one can understand things that are not true, for example.   On Peter’s view, the characteristics of the understanding displayed by the educated person, besides involving principles of reasoning, are that it is broad, involves commitment to the standards inherent in a given type of inquiry (e.g., the scientific method), is transformative, and involves “cognitive perspective”. By these terms, he invites us to consider and assent to the suggestion that being a brilliant scientists or a brilliant musician, while admirable in itself, is not the same thing as being well educated, essentially because it is a narrow proficiency, whereas we expect a well-educated person to have a range of understanding across a broad spectrum.

Knowing much science but being unconcerned about the proper conduct of scientific inquiry and uninterested in whether scientific claims are legitimately grounded is another mark of a less than successfully educated person, and to acquire knowledge but allow it to rest “inert” in one’s mind, available for regurgitation when required, but otherwise meaningless in that it does not inform or affect one’s outlook on life in any way, is to be well informed rather than well educated. Similarly, to acquire various items of knowledge but to keep them compartmentalized in such a way that one’s philosophical understanding, say, does not cross-fertilized and inform one’s scientific understanding, or one’s historical understanding fails to actually inform any of one’s other dealings in life, is again to suggest one is well informed rather than well educated.

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Of course, Peters has not proved these points in the manner of the scientific or mathematician, but then these are not scientific or mathematical claims. The question is whether, given that education is a value-loaded term referring to the development of understanding, we agree on reflection that these are broad conditions that we would want to write into the concept. Looked at in that way, it is hard to see who would wish to dissent – who, that is to say, would wish to argue.

My conception of education is such that I want my children to have a narrow range of understanding, to let their knowledge lie inert, to be unmoved by the rules of scientific or philosophical thinking, and to be indifferent to the interrelationship and the illumination that various subjects may shed on each other. In my view, an educated person should be narrow of mind and unaffected by their understanding.


There are a hundred definitions of Education but the one which comes closest to its core is that Education is what remains with you after you have forgotten all about you learnt at school, college or university. Education breaks all strengthens all bonds. It is the training of mind, not the stuffing of brains. It is the assimilation of ideas, not the dissemination of data. It has continued to evolve diversity and extend its reach since the dawn of human history.

Education is a process of character building, strengthening mind and expansion of intellect. According to an old Indian proverb, a man without Education is a beast without its horns or tail. He is a burden on earth and a parasite on society.

Education is a systematic process through which a child or an adult acquires knowledge, experience, skill and sound attitude. It makes an individual civilized, refined, cultured and educated. For a civilized and socialized society, education is the only means. Its goal is to make an individual perfect. Every society gives importance to Education because it is a panacea for all evils. It is the key to solve the various problems of life.

According to Socrates-“Education means bringing out of the idea of universal validity which is latent in the mind of every man”.

According to Knowels (1995), education is the development of all those capabilities in which the individual which is enable him to control his environment and fulfillment his possibilities. Education is the process of changing behavior pattern of people acquisition of the art of utilization of knowledge and ideas.

Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Education is the development of all those capabilities in which the individual which is enable him to control his environment and fulfillment his possibilities. (Mrunalini, 2010).

Nature of Education

As is the meaning of Education, so is its nature. It is very complex. Let us now discuss the nature of Education:

1.   Education is a life-long process:   Education is a continuous and lifelong process. It starts from the womb of the mother and continues till death. It is the process of development from infancy to maturity. It includes the effect of everything which influences human personality.

2.   Education is a systematic process:   It refers to transact its activities through a systematic institution and regulation.

3.   Education is development of individual and the society :   It is called a force for social development, which brings improvement in every aspect in the society.

4.   Education is modification of behavior:   Human behavior is modified and improved through educational process.

5.   Education is purposive:   Every individual has some goal in his life. Education contributes in attainment of that goal. There is a definite purpose underlined all Educational activities.

6.   Education is training:   Human senses, mind, behavior, activities; skills are trained in a constructive and socially desirable way.

7.   Education is instruction and direction:   It directs and instructs an individual to fulfill his desires and needs for exaltation of his whole personality.

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8.   Education is life:   Life without Education is meaningless and like the life of a beast. Every aspect and incident needs education for its sound development.

9.   Education is continuous reconstruction of our experiences:   As per the definition of John Dewey Education reconstructs and remodels our experiences towards socially desirable way.

10.   Education helps in individual adjustment:   A man is a social being. If he is not able to adjust himself in different aspects of life his personality can’t remain balanced. Through the medium of education he learns to adjust himself with the friends, class fellows, parents, relations, neighbors and teachers etc.

11.   Education is balanced development:   Education is concerned with the development of all faculties of the child. It performs the functions of the physical, mental, aesthetic, moral, economic, spiritual development of the individual so that the individual may get rid of his animal instincts by sublimating the same so that he becomes a civilized person.

12.   Education is a dynamic process:   Education is not a static but a dynamic process which develops the child according to changing situations and times. It always induces the individual towards progress. It reconstructs the society according to the changing needs of the time and place of the society.

13.   Education is a bipolar process:   Education is a bipolar process in which one personality acts on another to modify the development of other person. The process is not only conscious but deliberate.

14.   Education is a three dimensional process:   “All Educations proceeds by participation of the individual in the social consciousness of the race.” Thus it is the society which will determine the aims, contents and methods of teachings. In this way the process of Education consists of 3 poles – the teacher, the child and the society.

15.   Education as growth:   The end of growth is more growth and the end of Education is more Education. “An individual is a changing and growing personality.” The purpose of Education is to facilitate the process of his/her growth.

Therefore, the role of Education is countless for a perfect society and man. It is necessary for every society and nation to bring holistic happiness and prosperity to its individuals.


Education is mostly planned and purposeful activity. It must have clear aims and objectives. Objective is pre-determined goal which inspires the individual to attain it through appropriate activities. Educational aims are necessary in giving direction to educational activity. There are certain factors determining educational objectives. They are:

  • Philosophy of life
  • Element of human nature Religion
  • Political ideologies
  • Socioeconomic factors
  • Emerging problem of nation
  • Cultural factors
  • Exploration of knowledge and technology

Utilitarian – it is concerned with providing knowledge and skill required by the child for leading his day to day life. Fulfillment of this aim will enable him to make use of the knowledge and skill in a fruitful manner. It makes the education process a purposeful one and depicts the relationship between education and life. To enhance or update the knowledge, student should be given enough opportunities for widening and deepening their knowledge through exploration. Encouraging student to express their own ideas in their own words will help them to acquire knowledge.

Vocational – education should prepare the child to earn his livelihood so that he can lead a productive life in the society. Dignity of labor and respect to the labor have to be developed or inculcated by means of education.

Social – every individual is considered as a productive member of the society. Though education the individual child should be provided with the required assistance to become a useful member of the society, irrespective of the socioeconomic status. Keeping this aim in mind, educationists have to help learners to develop a healthy, purposeful, productive, exploratory and controlling adjustment with the environment. Society is the result of the interrelations of individuals. It consists of big and small groups and there are subgroups within each group.

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Education helps the child to understand this interrelation of individuals and possibilities of various groups. By the way of education student should realize the importance of social values like justice, fair play, healthy competition, harmony, etc. in short, education instill a sense of obligation and loyalty towards the community and its needs. By means of social aim, education gives direction in the development of the society.

Intellectual:- it is essential for acquiring knowledge, thinking, reasoning, judgment and generalization. Education provides enough opportunities to develop the innate intellectual capacity of the student development of intelligence through education will enable the child to lead an independent life with confidence.

Citizenship:– it helps the child to grow as productive citizens by following the social and moral standards set by the society. Education motivates the child to perform his duties and responsibilities as citizen, for the welfare of the society. All countries in general and democratic countries in particular have to upload this aim of education.

Physical health and well being:- education prepare the child to lead a healthy life through providing the knowledge required for a healthy living and helping him to develop a positive attitude towards health. Education should also help child to develop a health conscience and respect towards his or her own health.

Character development:-  character development as a supreme aim of education. Education assists the child to develop certain human values, attitudes, and habits which are essential for building a desirable character.

Mental development:– moral values like honesty, truthfulness, justice, goodness, purity, courage, dutifulness, punctuality, self-confidence, discrimination between good and bad, observation rules, beliefs in systematic organization, etc. are inculcated through education . These qualities contribute to the development of morality and sound character.

Cultural development:– by under -going education child becomes cultures and civilized. Cultural development is manifested through the development of an esthetic sense and respect for others culture.

Education for leisure:– leisure is the time meant for enjoyment and recreation. Leisure plays an important role in recharging our depleted energy levels. Leisure time should be utilized in such a way that the individual as well as the society should benefit from it.

Self-realization:- what we are is God’s gift to us and what we become is our gift to God. Child is born with tremendous potentials and the equipping him to utilize the identified.

Mental and emotional development:– in this fast changing world, good mental health is a cope with the changing lifestyles and societal needs. Education should train the child by giving adequate opportunities for mental and emotional development. Nowadays, lot of research is taking place to gather more information regarding the role of emotional development on education and life. Recent studies show that emotional development is essential to conduct proper self- appraisal, control unhealthy emotions, develop an aim in life, attain emotional maturity, etc.

Autonomous development:– an individual child has to develop in total by seeking assistance and direction extended life situations and include development of personality, character, leadership, maturity, mental health, physique and intelligence.

Self-education aim:- as education is considered as a lifelong process, it prepare the child to adopt a proactive role towards the learning process. Education has to properly harness the natural curiosity and urge present in the child while imparting knowledge. The aim is gaining importance in this era of knowledge explosion where students are expected to take a leading role in the teaching-learning process than     the teacher. Teachers should make sure that students are learning as a result of the internal motivation rather than a reaction to the compulsion exerted by others.

International understanding:- education is a universal process and it helps in creating universal understanding. The progress we achieved in the field of education is the result of the combined efforts of people from different countries, the scholars.


In Education and the Educated Man (1972) Richard Peters suggested that educated persons are, in an important sense, defined by their ability to understand a given matter. Peters explains that the modern concept of the educated person arose in the nineteenth century, and differentiated those who had been trained in some specialist skill or knowledge from those who had been broadly educated. He states that ‘we distinguish educating people from training them because for us education is no longer compatible with any narrowly conceived enterprise’ (Peters 1972, 10). He specifies that the ‘educated’ necessarily come to understand knowledge that is of value. For Peters, education involves the idea of a community passing on knowledge that has more than instrumental value. Education Must Involve Knowledge, Understanding and Some Kind Of Cognitive Perspective Which Are Not Inert

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