Early Childhood Reading Strategies
To Request For Project Topics and Materials - Call Us with 07068634102
The ability to read is one determiner of children’s’ success or failure. They must form the habit of reading to perform well in all subjects. A good reader has a better opportunity for greater achievement. The skill acquired in reading can promote the acquisition of language skills like listening, speaking, and writing. Some primary school pupils find it difficult to read and understand despite the fact that reading is indispensable. Some show a carefree attitude towards reading. This problem is not peculiar to primary schools, but pertains to all categories of readers
Reading Orientations In Early Childhood Programme
- Decoding: Before your child can read, he must be able to decode (sound out) words. Kindergarten teachers use phonics instruction to introduce letters, one by one, along with their corresponding sounds. The goal is for children to have phonemic awareness, the knowledge that each letter represents an individual sound. Once children understand this principle, teachers will practice decoding with CVC (consonant, vowel, consonant) words with them. Your child will begin reading simple books that contain many of these words.
- Context Clues: Context clues help your child comprehend what he’s reading and improve his vocabulary at the same time. Your child’s kindergarten teacher will demonstrate how to use this strategy. As she reads, the teacher will pause at a word and pretend not to be able to decode it. For example, the teacher encounters the word “bird,” a complex word for kindergartners because of the “ir” sound in the middle.
After pronouncing the first sound in the word, “b,” the teacher points to the picture of birds on the page and then asks the children to say the word. Since most students will know the initial sound, “b,” determining the word becomes easier especially if the book is about birds.
- Shared Reading: Kindergarten teachers rely on shared reading to help their students improve reading fluency and learn concepts of print like left-to-right progression of words and sentence structure. Echo reading is a shared reading strategy. The teacher reads a sentence from a book. The students will repeat the sentence while the teacher points to the words. When your child participates in this activity, he will also improve his sight word vocabulary. These are frequently used words that usually cannot be sounded out like “what,” “the” and “come.”
- Guided Reading: Guided reading is a strategy teachers use to help their students in small groups. This allows teachers to differentiate instruction to meet individual needs. Therefore, if your child is an advanced, average or struggling reader, the teacher will use specific techniques in guided reading groups to help him. She will reinforce decoding and comprehension skills using books that are leveled in complexity. Thus, this method allows every child to experience success in reading.
- Read-Aloud: In read-aloud(s) the teacher reads to the whole class or to a small group, using material that is at the listening comprehension level of the children. The content may focus on a topic related to a curriculum expectation in another subject area, such as mathematics, science, or social studies.
Above all, reading aloud to children helps them to develop a love of good literature, motivation to pursue reading on their own, and familiarity with a variety of genres, including non-fiction. It provides them with new vocabulary, exposes them to a variety of literature, and contributes to their oral and written language development. Reading aloud should occur every day in the early stage of reading instruction to stimulate the children’s interest in books and reading.
- Shared Reading: Shared reading provides the teacher with the opportunity to model effective reading; promote listening comprehension; teach vocabulary; reinforce concepts about books and print and letter-sound relationships; and build background knowledge on a range of subjects. Shared reading provides a bridge to guided reading. It should occur daily in the early stages of reading instruction and less frequently in later stages.
- Guided Reading: Guided reading provides opportunities to integrate children’s growing knowledge of the conventions of print, of letter-sound relationships, and of other foundational skills in context. Through modelling and instruction, guided reading enables teachers to extend children’s vocabulary development and their knowledge and use of appropriate comprehension strategies. It gives the teacher the opportunity to observe reading behaviours, identify areas of need, and allow children to develop more independence and confidence as they practice and consolidate reading behaviours and skills. Guided reading provides a bridge to independent reading and can help children develop the necessary higher-order thinking skills.
- Comprehension: Children learn comprehension skills in a variety of situations, using many levels of texts and different text types. The focus of guided comprehension is on direction, instruction, application, and reflection.
Focused instruction in comprehension skills – such as previewing; self-questioning; making links to self, text, and others; visualizing; using graphophonic, syntactic, and semantic cueing systems; monitoring, summarizing, and evaluating – is provided first. The children then apply the comprehension strategies in teacher-guided small groups and student-facilitated comprehension activities, such as literature circles, questioning the author, or reciprocal teaching.
Children work with varying degrees of support and use texts at their instructional level and independent level of reading. The teacher and the children reflect on performance, share experiences, and set new goals for learning. The leveled texts and the organization of the small group will change as the children’s knowledge and reading skills increase.
- Independent Reading: Purposeful and planned independent reading provides opportunities for children to build self-confidence, reinforce skill development, enhance fluency, build memory for language structures and vocabulary, and promote comprehension and the motivation to read. In addition, independent reading gives children time to get more information about a specific subject of interest.
Letter-Sound Relationships: Building on the foundation of phonemic awareness and concepts about print, children are ready to understand that there is a way to connect the sounds they hear with the print on the page in order to make meaning. In both the English and French writing systems, one letter may not necessarily represent one single sound, and so it is important that children receive systematic and explicit instruction about correspondences between the speech sounds and individual letters and groups of letters. Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language. Research has shown that systematic and explicit phonics instruction is the most effective way to develop children’s’ ability to identify words in print.
Oral language activities
Before doing an activity or reading a story in class, teach pre-selected vocabulary words. This is always helpful, especially for ELLs. This will give them the chance to identify the word, place it in context, and remember it. You can pre-teach vocabulary by playing with words and using English as a second language (ESL) methods such as:
- Role playing or pantomiming
- Using gestures
- Showing real objects
- Pointing to pictures
- Doing quick drawings on the board
Certainly, Phonemic awareness is the ability to understand that spoken words are composed of smaller units of sound. Thus, phonemic awareness helps children begin to understand how the English and/or Spanish alphabets work. You can teach phonemic awareness through activities such as:
- Finding objects in the classroom whose names begin or end with the same sound, such as desk, door, and dog.
- Doing clapping activities to identify the syllables in words
- Learning poetry and songs that have the same beginning sounds or end in rhyme
- Analyzing each other’s names to make discoveries about letters and sounds such as Whose name starts with B? Whose name has an “a”? Whose name has an “r”? Show me where you found it.
- Making charts about letter/sound discoveries (For example: “Here are three new letters. Let’s write some words under each letter.”)
Once students have learned the sounds, they can begin to learn the names of the letters. For ELLs, it is easier to hear the sounds first and then label each letter. You can teach the alphabet through songs accompanied with movements that outline each letter (For example: “A is for alligator. Make your arms open and shut like the mouth of an alligator. B is for bat”) There are books and tapes in most bookstores with alphabet songs and motions.
Concepts of print
“Big books” are ideal for showing children how books work. After reading a big book, you can point out concepts of print such as:
- The book’s front and back covers, title, and author
- The left-to-right direction of print
- What a word looks like and what the space between words looks like
- The fact that you are reading the words
- How inflection and intonation are used to connect content and structure of the text
- The differences between question marks, exclamation marks, and periods
Reading out loud to your students is a way to teach vocabulary while modeling reading. As you read aloud:
- Firstly, introduce the characteristics/elements of the story (characters, setting, problem, solution, plot)
- Secondly, explain words, topics, or concepts that ELLs may not be familiar with
- Thirdly, model how a reader self-corrects when making a mistake
- Fourthly, think aloud about what you are reading
- Lastly, provide opportunities for children to retell the story they heard through dramatic retellings; or use picture cards to put the story’s events in sequence
Reading is a process of getting meaning from print. Early reading includes the direct teaching of words and sounds. Children must be able to distinguish between different sounds of oral language for the purposes of achieving understanding. They also need basic knowledge about the written alphabet, sound-symbol relationships, and concepts of print because these are the basis for decoding and reading comprehension skills.
Early Childhood Reading Strategies
Dewey, J. (1902).The child and the curriculum. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Flanagan, K. (2012). Changing the discourse: Perspectives from Canada. Unpublished paper presented at International Innovations in ECE: a Canadian Forum on Early Childhood Frameworks, Victoria, BC.
Iannacci, L. & Whitty, P. (Eds.). (2009). Early childhood curricula: Reconceptualist perspectives. Calgary, Alberta: Detselig Press
To Request For Project Topics and Materials - Call Us with 07068634102