School Supervision and Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Basic Science in Akwa Ibom State

School Supervision and Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Basic Science in Akwa Ibom State


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1.1       Background to the Study

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Education has been recognized as a process of impacting knowledge, skills and attitudes to the learners. This could take place in varying schools with the purpose of ensuring total development of the children.

There is a general outcry that the standards of education are falling and morals flagging. Some blame pupils for this apparent decline in quality of education and moral values. A thoughtful few think that they are due to the nature of changes in all directions. Majority blame the teachers for the woes in our schools. They are not as devoted and dedicated to the cause of education as their predecessors.

Teachers as a group blame parents and the children. They also blame government for unattractive conditions of service and poor physical facilities in some parts of the educational system. This research project intends not to put the blame on the educational policy or on the system. The researcher does not even think that the children, the parents, the teachers and the poor educational facilities are responsible for the declining of the quality of education in the country. What the researcher is saying is that the whole blame is on the lack of adequate educational supervision in our educational system especially at the Primary/Secondary school levels.

School Supervision and Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Basic Science in Akwa Ibom State

Besides the educational supervision factor, the researcher sees corruption or lack of integrity on the part of some education stake holders as another major factor responsible for the declining quality of education in the country. Two facts concerning education in the country are very evident. These facts are: Only very few are aware of the value/importance of education in the nation’s development and only very few are aware of the real magnitude of the declining nature of the quality of education in the country with special reference to selected schools in Uyo Local Government Area. Education is the bedrock of any nation’s development. It gives men the tool to navigate their way through the world. What joy parents experience to see their children acquire qualitative education.

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As stated in the Nigeria National Policy on Education, there are educational goals, aims and objectives that must be achieved. It is pertinent on educational administrators to observe, monitor and oversee what the classroom teachers are doing in order to ensure the achievement of the set goals, aims and objectives as written in the National Policy on Education. Eregie and Ogiamen (2007) defined educational ‘supervision’ as the systematic application of principles of supervision in solving educational problems in order to get to a sustainable level of achievement.

On the other hand, school supervision according to Eregie and Ogiamen (2007) is defined as a whole mechanism systematically designed to accomplish the end of public education so that internal structure of the school is determined by the functions which are carried on towards those ends. This cuts across supervision of personnel, structures, equipment, laboratories, library, records and other school facilities to ascertain problems and defects and then recommend a satisfactory result for the school system.

School Supervision and Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Basic Science in Akwa Ibom State

Based on the importance attached to school supervision and improvement in teaching learning activities, the Federal Government of Nigeria in National Policy on Education (2004) states that: Government will continue to run good and well-staffed inspectorate services for all levels of education, State ministries of education in collaboration with the Federal inspectorate will be responsible for the inspection of all secondary schools under their jurisdiction, regular courses will continue to be run to acquaint inspectors with their new roles as advisers, guides, catalysts and sources of new ideas, introduction and orientation courses will continue to be organized for newly appointed inspectors of secondary schools, government will expand and strengthen the Federal inspectorate service to supplement state inspectorate services.


As put by Eye, Netzer and Krey (1971, in Akpan, 2003) described as that phase of school administration, which focuses primarily upon the achievement of appropriate instructional expectations of educational system. Akpan, added that supervision is a way of advising, guiding, refreshing, encouraging, stimulating, improving and overseeing certain groups with the hope of seeking their co-operation in order for the supervisors to be successful in their tasks of supervision. According to Zepeda (2006) cited in Opinmi GD (2011), to develop professionally and successfully too, teachers need many learning opportunities including reflection, dialogue and collaboration, particularly among their peers and with their internal supervisors. Effective school supervision provides relevant and continuous supports and encouragement in order to improve teachers’ instructional practices.

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